Below is a summary of the scientific literature on each ingredient in the 714 formula.
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a perennial herb with a zesty, lemon aroma, known for its calming effects.* Numerous studies indicate lemon balm helps to maintain calmness and a happy mood (Taiwo et al., 2012, Scholey et al., 2014).* It is also widely used for sleep support.* The rosmarinic acid in lemon balm may act by inhibiting GABA-transaminase (GABA-T), an enzyme that degrades GABA (Scholey et al., 2014, Ramanauskiene et al., 2016).* GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter which is thought to decrease excitability in the nervous system (Nuss, 2015).* In other words, it is thought to be the chemical in our brains responsible for putting the brakes on our nervous system.* Lemon balm may slow the GABA in your brain from being broken down, resulting in higher levels of GABA.* Higher levels of GABA may help you to relax or maintain composure in stressful situation.*
Oleamide is a natural fatty acid produced naturally in our brains from oleic acid (found in olive oil).* It is also found within the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba, known as jujube or Chinese date (Chen et al., 2017).* Jujubae fructus has been consumed in China for over 3,000 years (Chen et al., 2017).* Oleamide's natural function is thought to be associated with bringing about sleep (Boger, Henriksen and Cravatt, 1998).* Studies have shown that it accumulates in the central nervous system prior to sleeping (Basile, Hanus and Mendelson, 1999).* It has been shown to accumulate in the brain and spinal fluid by up to 6-fold after only a few hours of sleep deprivation (Basile, Hanus and Mendelson, 1999).*
Apart from supporting sleep, oleamide has also been consumed during the day to reputedly support relaxation.* Oleamide is thought to be associated with an increase in GABAergic signalling, which could potentially account for its perceived soothing properties (Coyne et al., 2002).* It also increases serotonin signalling (Huidobro-Toro and Harris, 1996). Serotonin is the neurotransmitter associated with happiness. One preliminary study found that oleamide significantly promoted subjective calmness scores in the test group (Wei et al., 2007). Another study indicated that it promotes significant relaxation without causing physical dependence (Fedorova et al., 2001). Oleamide may confer a range of other benefits but the significance of its effects will only be fully understood once further research becomes available.
Magnolia bark (magnolia officinalis) has been used to promote sleep and relaxation for thousands of years in Asia.* Magnolia bark extract contains several bioactive compounds such as the bi-phenolic isomers honokiol and magnolol. Research suggests these compounds are potent antioxidants (Chen et al., 2001, Shen et al., 2010, Amorati et al., 2015).* While Magnolia bark has been ingested for thousands of years, researchers have only relatively recently begun to explore the effects of Magnolol and Honokiol on serotonin receptors and the GABAergic system (Lee et al., 2011, Woodbury et al., 2013, Poivre and Duez, 2017).* Magnolia is thought to support relaxation by helping to maintain GABAergic neurotransmission (Wang and Nielsen, 2001, Han et al., 2011, Alexeev et al., 2012).* The significance of Magnolia's benefits will only become fully apparent once further research is conducted.
Valerian Root (Valeriana Officinalis) has been used since the era of ancient Greece and Rome to promote tranquility and aid sleep.* Valerian contains valerenic acid, isovaleric acid and other antioxidants such as hesperidin and linarin. Research suggests that valerenic acid may support GABAergic neurotransmission, which may account for Valerian's reputed effects (Houghton, 1999, Benke et al., 2009, Murphy et al., 2010).* Becker et al. (2014) reported that it may allosterically modulate GABA-A receptors.* Several studies suggests that taking valerian root may reduce the amount of time it takes to fall asleep, as well as improve sleep quality and quantity (Leathwood et al., 1982, Balderer and Borbély, 1985, Lindahl and Lindwall, 1989, Tokunaga et al., 2007, Taavoni, Ekbatani and Haghani, 2013, Taavoni et al., 2013).*
Erythrina Mulungu, also known as Erythrina Verna, is a medium-sized tree, native to the Amazon rainforest regions of Brazil and Peru. If you have ever ventured into the depths of Amazonia, you might have encountered its coral red flowers, which earned it the alternative name “coral tree.”
The tree bark has long been utilized by the Shamans of Indigenous Amazonian tribes, for a number of uses, including sleep support and promoting calmness (Garín-Aguilar et al., 2000, Vasconcelos et al., 2003, Ribeiro et al., 2006, Vasconcelos et al., 2007).*
There have not been many human studies done on mulungu's constituents, which comprise of alkaloids such as cristamidine, erysodine and hydroxyerythravine, as well as flavonoids and triterpines (Patocka, 2009, Oliveira et al., 2012, Setti-Perdigão et al., 2013, Gelfuso et al., 2016).*
In a study of people attending the dentist to get their molars extracted, a significantly high preference for mulungu was observed among the vast majority of participants (Silveira-Souto et al., 2014).* The study also found that people of a nervous disposition tended to prefer mulungu the most.*
Mulungu is unusual for a relaxing extract, in that it does not appear to have a prevalent action on GABA or glutamate neurotransmission (Faggion et al., 2011, Rosa et al., 2012).* Vasconcelos et al. (2004) found that the active extracts didn’t cause any motor coordination impairment in mice either.*
Recent studies suggest that Erythrina alkaloids such as erysodine may exert their effects by modulating nicotinic receptor channels (Setti-Perdigão et al., 2013,Smith, Tapper and Gardner, 2018, Gelfuso et al., 2020).* It has been suggested that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may play a role in maintaining mood (Picciotto et al., 2014).* Animal studies have shown that erysodine actually reduced nicotine self-administration, meaning it may be beneficial for supporting someone wishing to quit smoking (Mansbach Chambers and Rovetti, 2000).* Further human research is needed to support such use cases though, as well as all of mulungu’s numerous other purported benefits for supporting and maintaining health.*
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